Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism (e.g. vitamin D), or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (e.g. some forms of vitamin A). Others function as antioxidants (e.g. vitamin E and sometimes vitamin C). The largest number of vitamins (e.g. B complex vitamins) function as precursors for enzyme cofactors, that help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism. In this role, vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: for example, biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. Alternately, vitamins may also be less tightly bound to enzyme catalysts as coenzymes, detachable molecules which function to carry chemical groups or electrons between molecules. For example, folic acid carries various forms of carbon group – methyl, formyl and methylene - in the cell. Although these roles in assisting enzyme-substrate reactions are vitamins' best-known function, the other vitamin functions are equally important.  Source ~

Vitamin A (Retinol)

Vitamin A - is a fat soluble vitamin with three major functions in the body: 1) It helps cells differentiate normally; this is especially pertinent during pregnancy for a developing embryo. 2) It maintains healthy cells in the eye and is required for the transduction of light. 3) It may be required for normal reproductive function in both males and females. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant found in plants that the body converts to Vitamin As. Deficiency is characterized by poor night vision, dry skin, increased risk of infection and metaplasia (a precancerous condition). Severe deficiency is characterized by blindness. Vitamin A is found in liver and dairy products and Beta-carotene is found in dark green and yellow-orange vegetable.

Significant Food Source - mango, broccoli, butternut squash, carrots, tomato juice, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, beef liver

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Thiamine - is a water-soluble vitamin needed to process carbohydrates, fat and protein. Nerve cells also require Thiamine to function normally. Fatigue, heart and kidney can occur in a deficient individually. Thiamine is found in whole wheat, peas, beans, fish, peanuts and meat.

Significant Food Source - spinach, green peas, tomato juice, watermelon, sunflower seeds, lean ham, lean pork chops, soy milk

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Riboflavin - is a water-soluble vitamin needed to process amino acids and fats and also to activate Vitamin B6 and Folic Acid. Chronic fatigue syndrome is often an indicator of Riboflavin deficiency. Riboflavin is found in dairy products, eggs and meat.

Significant Food Source - spinach, broccoli, mushrooms, eggs, milk, liver, oysters, clams

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Niacin - is a water-soluble vitamin that is used in the processing of energy from carbohydrates. Niacin deficiency is characterized by loss of appetite, skin rash, diarrhea and emotional disturbance. Good sources of Niacin are peanuts, brewer's yeast, fish and meat.

Significant Food Source - spinach, potatoes, tomato juice, lean ground beef, chicken breast, tuna (canned in water), liver, shrimp

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Vitamin B6 - is a water-soluble vitamin that is used by the body to process amino acids. It is thus vital in creation of proteins, hormones and neurotransmitters. Vitamin B6--in conjunction with Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid--lowers homocysteine levels, an amino acid that is linked to heart disease and stroke. Vitamin B6 deficiency is characterized by impaired immunity, skin lesions and mental confusion. Vitamin B6 is found in potatoes, bananas, lentils, liver turkey and tuna.

Significant Food Source - bananas, watermelon, tomato juice, broccoli, spinach, acorn squash, potatoes, white rice, chicken breast

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 - is a water-soluble vitamin required for DNA replication and nerve cell activity. Vitamin B12 acts with Folic Acid and Vitamin B6 to control homocysteine levels--an amino acid linked to heart disease and stroke. Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with fatigue. Vitamin B12 is found in all foods of animal origin including dairy, eggs, meat, poultry and fish.

Significant Food Source - meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, milk, eggs

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Vitamin C - is a water-soluble vitamin that has quite a few biological functions. It acts as an antioxidant, especially protecting LDL cholesterol from oxidative damage. Vitamin C. The antioxidant properties of Vitamin C are also though to protect smokers, as well as people exposed to second hand smoke, from the harmful effects of free radicals. Vitamin C is needed to make collagen, a substance used to strengthen many parts of the body such as muscles and blood vessels. Vitamin C also plays a role in wound healing and as an antihistamine. Fatigue, easy bruising and bleeding gums are early signs of Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy occurs during severe deficiency. 

Significant Food Source - spinach, broccoli, red bell peppers, snow peas, tomato juice, kiwi, mango, orange, grapefruit juice, strawberries

Vitamin D

Vitamin D - is a fat soluble vitamin who's most important role is maintaining adequate levels of calcium in the blood by increasing absorption of calcium from food and reducing calcium loss in the urine. Vitamin D also plays a role in blood cell formation and is involved in cell differentiation and insulin production. Deficiency is characterized by a softening of the bones. In children, Vitamin D deficiency is called rickets. Vitamin D is often fortified in foods and is found in cod liver oil. The majority of Vitamin D however is made in the body during a chemical reaction that starts with sunlight exposure to the skin.

Significant Food Source - self-synthesis via sunlight, fortified milk, egg yolk, liver, fatty fish

Vitamin E

Vitamin E - is a fat-soluble vitamin that acts as an antioxidant that protects cell membranes and cholesterols from damage. Some studies suggest that supplementing with Vitamin E can reduce the risk of heart attacks. Vitamin E also plays a role in the body's ability to process glucose. Vitamin E deficiency is rare, but is characterized by an increased risk of arthritis and major depression. Vitamin E is found in wheat germ, nuts and seeds, whole grains, egg yolks and leafy green vegetables.

Significant Food Source - polyunsaturated plant oils (soybean, corn and canola oils), wheat germ, sunflower seeds, tofu, avocado, sweet potatoes, shrimp, cod

Vitamin K

Vitamin K - is a fat soluble vitamin needed for proper bone formation and blood clotting. Vitamin K fulfills this function by helping the body transport calcium. VItamin K deficiency is characterized by uncontrolled bleeding. Vitamin K is found in spinach, kale, collards and broccoli to name a few.

Significant Food Source - brussels sprouts, leafy green vegetables, spinach, broccoli, cabbage, liver


Biotin - is a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a coenzyme in the metabolism of protein, fats and carbohydrates. While uncommon, deficiency in biotin can cause hair loss, anemia and nausea. Some sources of Biotin include oatmeal, egg yolk, soy, bananas, peanuts and mushrooms.

Significant Food Source - widespread in foods

Folic Acid

Folic Acid - is a water-soluble vitamin needed for cell replication and growth. Since Folic Acid forms the building blocks of DNA and RNA, rapidly generating tissues such as red blood cells and cells in a fetus have a high need for Folic Acid. Folic Acid acts with Vitamin B12 and Vitamin B6 to control homocysteine levels--an amino acid linked to heart disease and stroke. Folic acid can be found in beans, leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, meat and is often fortified in grain products in the United States.

Significant Food Source - tomato juice, green beans, broccoli, spinach, asparagus, okra, black-eyed peas, lentils, navy, pinto and garbanzo beans

Pantothenic Acid

Pantothenic Acid - is a water-soluble vitamin involved in the Kreb's cycle to produce energy and is also needed to make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is also essential in releasing energy from fats and synthesizing cholesterol. Pantothenic Acid deficiencies are rare and are characterized by mood disorders. Liver, yeast and salmon all have high concentrations of pantothenic acid.

Significant Food Source - widespread in foods

Blender Smoothies | Smoothie Blender | Smoothie Recipes | Smoothie Mix

About UsBlog | Articles | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | Contact | Sitemap

Copyright© 2010 | Blender Wellness and Vuetone® Enterprises Inc. | All Rights Reserved.

Web Design Services